Policies and Legislations
The National Biosafety Framework has been in place since 1998. In 1998, the Research Act was amended to provide for the management of potentially harmful technologies and undertakings. In 2000, the Research (Biosafety) Regulations were developed and gazetted and the Biosafety Board was established. The National policy on biotechnology and its safe use was developed in 2005 and in the same year the Government through the National Policy on Biotechnology agreed to allocate 0.5% of GDP towards biotechnology research, development, application and regulation. To reinforce the policy framework, a new law establishing the National Biotechnology Authority into place – the National Biotechnology Authority Act [Cap. 14:31] was passed. The NBA Act of 2006 replaced the Research Amendment Act of 1998 and repealed the Research (Biosafety) Regulations of 2000. Whilst the National Biotechnology Authority replaced the Biosafety Board.
This Applies to:-
- All activities aimed at research into and the development, importation, exportation and use of biotechnological processes;
- The import, export, contained use, release or placing on the market of any product of biotechnology that is likely to have adverse effect on human health, the environment, the economy, national security or social norms and values;
- Any activity involving biological and molecular engineering technologies such as metabolic engineering, proteomics, metabolomics, nanotechnology, genetic modifications, cloning, DNA-chip technology, bioinformatics and such other technologies as may be declared by the Authority to constitute potentially harmful research or undertakings;
- All measures aimed at minimising the impact of biotechnological processes on national security, human health, animals, plants and the environment.
It provides an in vitro model of the tissue in a well defined environment which can be easily manipulated and analysed. Plant tissue culture in particular is concerned with the growing of entire plants from small pieces of plant tissue, cultured in medium.